Understanding Dna Structure And Replication – Answers To Practice Questions

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[10000印刷√] model of dna structure and replication 143083Dna structure from gambarsaelwi.blogspot.com

The Basics of DNA Structure

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material that carries the instructions for the development and function of all living organisms. It is a double-stranded helix composed of four nucleotide bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T).

The nucleotide bases pair up in a specific way – A with T, and C with G – forming the rungs of the DNA ladder. The sugar-phosphate backbone forms the sides of the ladder, and the sequence of the bases determines the genetic code.

Replication of DNA

Replication is the process by which DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division. This ensures that each daughter cell receives an identical copy of the genetic material.

The replication process involves several steps, including the unwinding of the double helix, separation of the two strands, and synthesis of new complementary strands by DNA polymerase enzyme. The leading strand is synthesized continuously, while the lagging strand is synthesized in short fragments called Okazaki fragments.

Practice Questions

1. What are the four nucleotide bases in DNA?

The four nucleotide bases in DNA are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T).

2. How do the nucleotide bases pair up in DNA?

The nucleotide bases pair up in a specific way – A with T, and C with G – forming the rungs of the DNA ladder.

3. What is replication?

Replication is the process by which DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division.

4. What is the role of DNA polymerase in replication?

DNA polymerase is the enzyme that synthesizes new complementary strands during DNA replication.

5. How is the lagging strand synthesized in DNA replication?

The lagging strand is synthesized in short fragments called Okazaki fragments.

Conclusion

Understanding DNA structure and replication is crucial in the field of genetics and biotechnology. By answering practice questions and reviewing the basics, you can gain a deeper understanding of this fundamental biological process.

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